July–September 2013 WCF/USDA Research Update

November 4, 2013

World Cocoa Foundation RESEARCH UPDATE: July-September 2013

Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor


The Brazilian government’s Executive Commission for Cacao Farm Planning (CEPLAC) is set to officially launch a biofungicide [Tricovab] that targets witch’s broom, a disease that devastated crops in the state of Bahia during the 1990s.  Click here to read the news article.

The AAU, APLU, ARL Statement on Expanded Public Access to Data

The Association of American Universities, the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, and the Association of Research Libraries presented a joint statement on expanded public access to data to the National Research Council at the National Academy of Science Forum on May 16, 2013.  Statement on Public Access to Data [PDF].



**Adamafio, N.A.  Theobromine toxicity and remediation of cocoa by-products: An overview. Journal of Biological Sciences, 13 (7), pp. 570-576, 2013. (PostHarvestDetheobromination495KB)

**Adebiyi, S., Okunlola, J.O.  Factors affecting adoption of cocoa farm rehabilitation techniques in Oyo State of Nigeria. World Journal Agricultural Sciences, vol. 9 (3), 258-265, 2013. (SocioEconomicCocoaRehabilitation339KB)

**Afoakwa, E.O., Kongor, J.E., Takrama, J.F., Budu, A.S.  Changes in acidification, sugars and mineral composition of cocoa pulp during fermentation of pulp pre-conditioned cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans. International Food Research Journal, vol. 20 (3), p. 1215-1222, 2013. (PostHarvestFermentation632KB)

**Aikpokpodion, P.E., Atewolara-Odule, O.C., Osobamiro, T., Oduwole, O.O., Ademola, S.M.  A survey of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc residues in cocoa beans obtained from selected plantations in Nigeria. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5, p. 88-98, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilitySoilHeavyMetals178KB)

**Aikpokpodion, P.E., Osobamiro, T., Atewolara-Odule, O.C., Oduwole, O.O., Ademola, S.M.  Studies on adsorption mechanism and kinetics of magnesium in selected cocoa growing soils in Nigeria. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5,  p. 128-139, 2013.  (Environment&SustainabilityMagnesium200KB)

**Amir, I.Z., Hanida, H.S., Syafiq, A.  Development and physical analysis of high fiber bread incorporated with cocoa (Theobroma cacao sp.) pod husk powder.  International Food Research J., vol. 20 (3), p. 1301-1305, 2013. (PostHarvestCocoafiberbread576KB)

**Araujo, Q.R., Loureiro, G.A.H.A., Santana, S.O., Baligar, V.C.  Soil Classification and Carbon Storage in Cacao Agroforestry Farming Systems of Bahia, Brazil. J. Sustainable Forestry, vol. 32, p. 625-647, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestry CarbonStorage187KB)

**Barsottini, M.R., de Oliveira, J.F., Adamoski, D., Teixeira, P.J., do Prado, P.F., Tiezzi, H.D., Sforça, M.L., Cassago, A., Portugal, R.V., de Oliveira, P.S., Zeri, A.C., Dias, S.M., Geriera, G.A., Ambrosio, A.L.  Functional diversification of cerato-platanins in Moniliophthora perniciosa as seen by differential expression and protein function specialization. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. July 31, 2013 [Epub ahead of print]. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraBiology4.6MB)

**Berlan, A. 2011. Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Anthropological Perspective on Child Labour in Cocoa. The Sustainable Consumption Institute. Working paper No. 9, University of Manchester, UK, 2011. (Socio-EconomicChildLabor266KB)

**Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Mora-Tiscareño, A., Franco-Lira, M., Cross, J.V., Engle, R., Aragón-Flores, M., Gómez-Garza, G., Jewells, V., Medina-Cortina, H., Solorio, E., Chao, C.K., Zhu, H., Mukherjee, P.S., Ferreira-Azevedo, L., Torres-Jardón, R., D’Angiulli, A.  Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children. Front Pharmacol. 2013 Aug 22 4:104. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00104. (HumanNutritionFlavanols2.64MB)

**Chang, A.L.S.  The use of wald’s sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) in cocoa pod borer management. Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), vol. 63 (2), p. 5-10, 2013. (Diseases&PestsCocoaPodBorerControl1.09MB)

**Crescenti, A., Solà, R., Valls, R.M., Caimari, A., del Bas, J.M., Anguera, A., Anglés, N., Arola, L. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  PLoS ONE, vol. 8 (6), art. no. e65744, 2013. (HumanNutritionPolyphenols DNAMethylation291KB)

**Di Renzo, L., Rizzo, M., Sarlo, F., Colica, C., Iacopino, L., Domino, E., Sergi, D., De Lorenzo, A.  Effects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot study. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., vol. 17 (16), p. 2257-2266, 2013. (HumanNutritionHealthBenefits213KB)

**Evans, H.C., Bezerra, J.L., Barreto, R.W. Of mushrooms and chocolate trees: aetiology and phylogeny of witches’ broom and frosty pod diseases of cacao. Plant Pathology, vol. 62, p. 728-740, 2013. (Diseases&PestsReview678KB)

**Fernandes, A.R., Dario, M.F., Pindo, C.A.S.O., Kaneko, T.M., Baby, A.R., Velasco, M.V.R.  Stability evaluation of organic lip lalm. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 49 (2), pp. 293-299, 2013. (PostHarvestLipBalm490KB)

**Galland, B., Guillebert, J., Letourmy, A.  A public/private partnership experiment in the area of social health protection in Tanzania. Field Actions Science Report, 8, special, 2012. (SocioEconomicSocialHealth465KB)

**Harwood, M.L., Ziegler, G.R., Hayes, J.E. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate. Nutrients, 5, p. 2258-2267, 2013. (HumanNutritionFlavanolTolerance342KB)

**Huamaní-Yupanqui, H.A.,  Huauya-Rojas, M.A., Mansilla-Minaya, L.G., Florida-Rofner, N., Neira-Trujillo, G.M. Presence of heavy metals in organic cacao [Theobroma cacao L.) crop [Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao [Theobroma cacao L.) orgánico]. Acta Agronomica, vol. 61 (4), p. 339-344, 2012. (PostHarvestHeavyMetals89KB)

**Idris, A., Rasaki, K., Folake, T. Hakeem, B.  Analysis of pesticide use in cocoa production in Obafemi Owode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, vol. 3 (6), p. 1-9, 2013. (Diseases&PestsPesticideUse188KB)

**Illeghems, K., De Vuyst, L., Weckx, S. Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, a strain well-adapted to the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem. BMC Genomics, p. 526. Article in Press, 2013. (PostHarvestFermentationAcetobacter3.06MB)

**Jaimez, R.E., Araque, O., Guzman, D., Mora, A., Espinoza, W., Tezara, W. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: Survival and growth during the early stages. Journal Agriculture Rural Development Tropics Subtropics, vol. 114 (1), p. 1-11, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryTimber1.28MB)

**Lee, S.L., Djauhari, M.A. Quality control in cocoa powder production process: A robust MSPC approach.  Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), 63 (2), pp. 41-44, 2013. (PostHarvestPowderProductionProcess816KB)

**Leite, P.B., Bispo, E.S., de Santana, L.R.R. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa [Perfil sensorial de chocolates produzidos a partir de cultivares de cacau resistentes ao fungo Moniliophtora perniciosa]. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 35 (2), pp. 594-602, 2013. (PostHarvestDiseaseResistanceSensoryProfiles1.95MB)

**Leite, P.B., Maciel, L.F., Opretzka, L.C.F., Soares, S.E., Bispo, E.S.  Phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in cocoa mass and chocolates produced from “witch broom disease” resistant and non resistant cocoa cultivars. [Compostos fenólicos, metilxantinas e atividade antioxidante em massa de cacau e chocolates produzidos a partir de cultivares resistentes e não resistentes a “vassoura de bruxa”]. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia, vol. 37 (3), p. 244-250, 2013. (PostHarvestDiseaseResistanceFlavor119KB)

**Li, Y.-M., Elson, M., Zhang, D., Sicher, R.C., Li, H., Meinhardt, L.W., V. Baligar, V.  Physiological Traits and Metabolites of Cacao Seedlings Influenced by Potassium in Growth Medium. American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 2, p. 1074-1080, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyPotassiumNutrition212KB)

**López D ‘Sola, P., Gabriela Sandia, M., Bou Rached, L., Hernández Serrano, P. Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility [Diseño de un programa de Análisis de Peligros y Puntos de Control Crítico en el proceso productivo de cacao en polvo en una industria alimentaria]. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, vol. 62 (4), p. 355-362, 2012. (PostHarvestProcessingFacility522KB)

**Martín, M.A., Ramos, S., Cordero-Herrero, I., Bravo, L., Goya, L. Cocoa phenolic extract protects pancreatic beta cells against oxidative stress. Nutrients, vol. 5 (8), p. 2955-2968, 2013.(HumanNutritionPancreativeStressProtection402KB)

**Massot-Cladera, M., Franch, À., Castellote, C., Castell, M., Pérez-Cano, F.J.  Cocoa flavonoid-enriched diet modulates systemic and intestinal immunoglobulin synthesis in adult Lewis rats. Nutrients, vol. 5 (8), p. 3272-3286, 2013. (HumanNutritionFlavanols1.17MB)

**Motilal, L.A., Zhang, D., Mischke, S., Meinhardt, L.W., Umaharan, P. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Tree Genetics and Genomes, 1-17 pp., Article in Press, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyGeneticConservation588KB)

**Nyatuame, M., Nartey, S. Effects of cocoa husk powder and cow dung on moisture content and infiltration rate of sandy soil. International Journal Soil Science, vol. 8 (2), p. 68-77, 2013. (PostHarvestPodHuskSoilMoisture211KB)

**Ogunmefun, O.T., Fasola, T.R., Saba, A.B., Oridupa, O.A.  The Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Mineral Analyses of Phragmanthera Incana (Klotzsch), A Species of Mistletoe Growing on Three Plant Hosts in South-Western Nigeria. International J. Biomedical Sci., 9, p. 33-40, ISSN/EISSN: 15509702 15552810, 2013.  (Environment&SustainabilityBiodiversityMistletoe157KB)

**Onumah, J.A., Onumah, E.E., Al-Hassan, R.M., Brümmer, B. Meta-frontier analysis of organic and conventional cocoa production in Ghana. Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic), vol. 59, p. 271-280, 2013. (SocioEconomicOrganic247KB)

**Osakabe, N. Flavan 3_ols improve metabolic syndrome risk factors: evidence and mechanisms. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., vol. 52, p. 186–192, 2013. (HumanNutritionFlavanols868KB)

**Resende, J.J., Peixoto, P.E.C., Silva, E.N., Delabie, J.H.C., Santos, G.M.M. Arboreal ant assemblages respond differently to food source and vegetation physiognomies: A study in the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. Sociobiology, vol. 60 (2), p. 174-182, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityBiodiversity767KB)

**Somarriba, E., Lachenaud, P. Successional cocoa agroforests of the Amazon-Orinoco-Guiana shield. Forests Trees and Livelihoods, vol. 22 (1), p. 51-59, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestry128K)

**Suzuki K, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T, Kato S, Kimura F, Kamei M, Miyazawa T.S. Oxidative stress during development of alcoholic fatty liver: therapeutic potential of cacao polyphenols. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., vol. 77 (8), p. 1792-1794, 2013. (HumanNutritionLiverHealth93.7KB)

**Sveinsson, S., Gill, N., Kane, N.C., Cronk, Q. Transposon fingerprinting using low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and related species. BMC Genomics, p. 502. In Press, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyTransposonFingerprinting1.15MB)

**Syahrir, H., Kusmartonob, Damrya.  Effects of cocoa pod husk bioconversion with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and or Pleurotus ostreatus on its nutrient content and in-vitro digestibility in ruminants. Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol. 25 (7), 2013. (PostHarvestHusks329KB)

**Thondiaman, V., Rajamani, K., Senthil, N., Shoba, N., Joel, A.J. Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) plus trees in Tamil Nadu by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. African Journal Biotechnology, vol. 12(30), p. 4747-4753, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyGeneticDiversity497KB)

**Tiralla, N., Panferov, O., Knohl, A.  Allometric relationships of frequently used shade tree species in cacao agroforestry systems in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems, 87, p. 857-870, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryShade432KB)

**Yaw, C.F.; Asuming-Brempong, S.; Mabe, F.N. Analysis of  cocoa-based Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Russian Journal Agricultural Socio-economic Sciences, vol. 2 (14), p. 34-43, 2013. (SocioEconomicInformationSystems593KB)

**Zapata Bustamante, S., Tamayo Tenorio, A., Alberto Rojano, B.  Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity of different Colombian cocoa clones [Efecto de la fermentación sobre la actividad antioxidante de diferentes clones de cacao Colombiano]. Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 18 (3), pp. 391-404, 2013. (PostHarvestFermentationAntioxidants145KB)

**Zzaman, W., Yang, T.A. Moisture, color and texture changes in cocoa seeds during superheated steam roasting. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(1), p. 1-7, 2013. (PostHarvest SteamRoasting134KB)


 **Complete articles are available on the WCF website in the Research Library. These articles are accessible to the cacao research community for research purposes only. This bibliography was developed with assistance from the National Agricultural Library, Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.

In developing countries access to expanded free literature may be explored by going to this link.



These categorized articles are available at the indicated affiliation address:


Drew, R.A. Micropropagation of tropical tree species. (2013) Acta Horticulturae, 988, pp. 57-64. AFFILIATIONS: School of Biological and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. KEYWORDS: Azadirachta indica;  Carica papaya;  Coffee;  Moringa olifera;  Neem;  Passionfruit; Cacao


Addo-Fordjour, P., Gyimah Gyamfi, H., Fei-Baffoe, B., Akrofi, A.Y. Impact of copper-based fungicide application on copper contamination of cocoa plants and soils in the Ahafo Ano North District, Ashanti region, Ghana.(2013) Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 19 (2), pp. 303-310. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana; See thesis pdf. Institute for Applied Material Flow Management, University of Applied Sciences, Environmental Campus, Birkenfeld, Germany; Department of Environmental Science, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana;

Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), PO Box 8, Akim Tafo, Ghana.AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Blackpod disease;  Cocoa;  Contamination factor;  Fungicides

Andrade, B.S., Villela-Dias, C., Gomes, D.S., Micheli, F., Góes-Neto, A. DNA and RNA polymerase activity in a Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid and self-defense against oxidative stress. (2013) Genetics and Molecular Research, 12 (2), pp. 1944-1950.

AFFILIATIONS: Laboratório de Bioinformática, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequié, BA, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Mitochondrial plasmid;  Moniliophthora perniciosa;  Oxidative stress;  Polymerases

ArgÔlo Santos Carvalho, H., Figueredo Ribeiro, L., Pirovani, C.P., Peres Gramacho, K., Micheli, F. Activity of polygalacturonases from Moniliophthora perniciosa depends on fungus culture conditions and is enhanced by Theobroma cacao extracts. (2013) Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 83, pp. 40-50. AFFILIATIONS: Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Departamento de Ciências Biológicas (DCB), Centro de Biotecnologia e Genética (CBG), Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16, 45662-900 Ilhéus-BA, Brazil; KEYWORDS: DNS;  Enzyme production;  Fungus development;  MM;  P;  PD;  PG;  Secretion;  Witches’ broom

Britto, D.S., Pirovani, C.P., Andrade, B.S., Dos Santos, T.P., Pungartnik, C., Cascardo, J.C.M., Micheli, F., Gesteira, A.S. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.(2013) Molecular Biology Reports, 40 (9), pp. 5417-5427. AFFILIATIONS: Centro de Biotecnologia e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16, Ilhéus BA 45662-900, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Antifungal activity;  Glycosyl hydrolases;  Pathogenesis protein;  Witches’ broom

Fan, Y., Bell, E., Etzel, R., Hammer, B., Frey, L., Harmon, T., Blank, T., Meeusen, C., Burn, B., Schon, M., Huang, Y., Petitt, F. Food crop culture in the land greenhouses at EPCOT® (2004) Acta Horticulturae, 659, pp. 161-169. AFFILIATIONS: Epcot Science, Walt Disney World Co., P. O. Box 10000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830 KEYWORDS: Cacao; Agricultural exhibit;  Aquaponics;  Biological control; Greenhouse;  Hydroponics;  Integrated pest management;  Protected culture;

Mazón, M., Díaz, F., Gaviria, J.C.  Effectiveness of different trap types for control of bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae) in Criollo cacao farms of Mérida, Venezuela. (2013) International Journal of Pest Management, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Laboratorio de Ecología de Insectos, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela; KEYWORDS: bottle traps;  cacao wilt;  Ceratocystis cacaofunesta;  funnel traps 

Mbarga, J.B., Ten Hoopen, G.M., Begoude, A.D., Tondje, P.R., Kuate, J., Ambang, Z., Amougou, A., Schiffers, B. Efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum oil formulations on the control of cocoa black pod disease (Phytophthora megakarya). (2012) Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences, 77 (3), pp. 65-73. AFFILIATIONS: Laboratoire Régional de Lutte Biologique et de Microbiologie Appliquée, IRAD-B.P. 2067, Yaounde, Cameroun.

Olu-Owolabi, B.I., Agunbiade, F.O., Fagbayigbo, B.O., Adebowale, K.O. Monitoring copper bioaccumulation in cocoa from copper-based pesticide-treated cocoa farms using fuzzy similarity method. (2013) Bioremediation Journal, 17 (3), pp. 131-147. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University, km 46 Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria.  KEYWORDS: bioaccumulation;  cocoa;  copper;  pesticides

Teixeira, P.J.P.L., Costa, G.G.L., Fiorin, G.L., Pereira, G.A.G. , Mondego, J.M.C.  Novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain PR-1 extracellular domains. (2013) Molecular Plant Pathology, 14 (6), pp. 602-609. AFFILIATIONS: Laboratório de Genômica e Expressão, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), CP 6109, Campinas, SP, 13083-970, Brazil;


Mahrizala , Nalley, L.L., Dixon, B.L., Popp, J.S. An optimal phased replanting approach for cocoa trees with application to Ghana (2013) Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) Article in Press.  AFFILIATIONS: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)JL, CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindang Barang, Bogor 16115, PO Box 161 Bogor 16001 Indonesia;Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness University of Arkansas, Agriculture Building Room 225 Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA; KEYWORDS: Net value;  Optimal phased replacement rate

Malan, B.B. Volatility and stabilization of the price of coffee and cocoa in Côte d’Ivoire (2013) Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic), 59 (7), pp. 333-340. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Economics, University of Cocody-Abidjan, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. KEYWORDS: Buffer stock;  Cocoa and coffee markets;  Farm gate price;  Price fluctuation

Permani, R. Optimal export tax rates of cocoa beans: A vector error correction model approach. (2013) Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics,  Article in Press.  AFFILIATIONS: Global Food Studies Faculty of Professions University of Adelaide Adelaide, South Australia Australia;  KEYWORDS: Indonesia;  Optimal tax


Achard, R., Malézieux, E., Robin, P., Ganry, J.  Role and status of plantain in agroforestry systems of South West Cameroon: Which pathways to productive and sustainable system? (2004) Acta Horticulturae, 638, pp. 101-108. AFFILIATIONS: CARBAP, CIRAD-FLHOR, Unite Mixte de Recherche sur les Systemes de Culture Tropicaux et Mediterraneens, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Crop association;  Crop succession;  Cropping system;  Foodcrop;  Theobroma cacao

Bomfim, J.D.A., Silva, R.M., De Fernandes Souza, V., De Andrade, E.R , Cazetta, E. Effects of shade cocoa plantation on artificial fruit consumption by birds in two contrasting landscapes in Southern Bahia, Brazil. (2013) Journal of Tropical Ecology, 29 (4), pp. 313-319.  AFFILIATIONS: Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16, Ilhéus, Bahia, CEP 45662-900, Brazil; KEYWORDS: agroforestry system;  anthropogenic disturbance;  avifauna;  forest cover;  frugivory

Damnyag, L., Saastamoinen, O., Blay, D., Dwomoh, F.K. , Anglaaere, L.C.N. , Pappinen, A. Sustaining protected areas: Identifying and controlling deforestation and forest degradation drivers in the Ankasa Conservation Area, Ghana. (2013) Biological Conservation, 165, pp. 86-94. AFFILIATIONS: University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, Fin-80101, Joensuu, Finland; Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, UP, P.O. Box 63, Kumasi, Ghana.

De Beenhouwer, M., Aerts, R. , Honnay, O. A global meta-analysis of the biodiversity and ecosystem service benefits of coffee and cacao agroforestry. (2013) Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 175, pp. 1-7. AFFILIATIONS: Plant Conservation and Population Biology, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31-2435, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium; KEYWORDS: Management intensity;  Species richness

Ezebilo, E.E. Nature conservation in Cross River National Park, south-east Nigeria: promoting collaboration between local people and conservation authorities. (2013) International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management, . Article in Press.AFFILIATIONS: Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 49, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden, KEYWORDS: land use conflict;  local participation;  nature conservation;  preferences;  sustainability

Läderach, P., Martinez-Valle, A., Schroth, G., Castro, N.  Predicting the future climatic suitability for cocoa farming of the world’s leading producer countries, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. (2013) Climatic Change, 119 (3-4), pp. 841-854. AFFILIATIONS: International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Hotel Seminole 2 cuadras al Sur, Managua, Nicaragua; KEYWORDS: Climate change; Environment

Melo, C.J., Hollander, G.M.  Unsustainable development: Alternative food networks and the Ecuadorian Federation of Cocoa Producers, 1995-2010 (2013) Journal of Rural Studies, 32, pp. 251-263. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Politics and International Relations, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199  KEYWORDS: Alternative trade;  Certification;  Cocoa;  Ecuador;  Farmers’ organizations;  Sustainable development

Siwar, C., Ahmed, F., Begum, R.A. Climate change, agriculture and food security issues: Malaysian perspective. (2013) Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 11 (2), pp. 1118-1123. AFFILIATIONS: Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia; KEYWORDS: Agriculture;  Climate change;  Food security;  Malaysia; Cocoa


Andújar, I., Carmen Recio, M., Ríos, J.L. Cocoa, an update of its beneficial properties for human health [Cacao, actualización de sus propiedades beneficiosas para la salud humana). (2013) Revista de Fitoterapia, 13 (1), pp. 5-21. AFFILIATIONS: Departament de Farmacologia, Universitat de València, Burjassot (Valencia), Spain.KEYWORDS: Anti-inflammation;  Antioxidant;  Cancer, Cardiovascular prevention;  Polyphenols

Arranz, S., Valderas-Martinez, P., Chiva-Blanch, G., Casas, R., Urpi-Sarda, M., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., Estruch, R. Cardioprotective effects of cocoa: Clinical evidence from randomized clinical intervention trials in humans. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Res., 57 (6), pp. 936-947. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Internal Medicine, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular disease;  Clinical trials;  Flavonoids

Baggott, M.J., Childs, E., Hart, A.B., De Bruin, E., Palmer, A.A., Wilkinson, J.E., De Wit, H. Psychopharmacology of theobromine in healthy volunteers. (2013) Psychopharmacology, 228 (1), pp. 109-118. AFFILIATIONS: University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; KEYWORDS: Caffeine;  Cognitive;  Genetics

Barnes, J. Where chocolate begins and research methods end: Understanding Kuna Cacao consumption. (2013) Human Organization, 72 (3), pp. 211-219.  AFFILIATIONS: Geography and Environmental Studies, Dawson College, Montreal, QC, Canada KEYWORDS: diet;  indigenous

Cady, R.J., Denson, J.E., Durham, P.L. Inclusion of cocoa as a dietary supplement represses expression of inflammatory proteins in spinal trigeminal nucleus in response to chronic trigeminal nerve stimulation.(2013) Molecular Nutrition Food Res., 57 (6), pp. 996-1006. AFFILIATIONS: Center for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, KEYWORDS: Cytokines;  Sensitization;  Trigeminal

Carrillo, L.C., Londoño-Londoño, J., Gil, A. Comparison of polyphenol, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in Theobroma cacao beans from different cocoa-growing areas in Colombia. (2013) Food Research International, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Grupo de Investigación en Sustancias Bioactivas, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de Antioquia, Carrera 53 # 61-30 Lab 229, A.A. 1226 Medellín, Colombia KEYWORDS: Antioxidant activity;  Methylxanthines;  Polyphenols;  Principal component analysis

Cimini, A., Gentile, R., D’Angelo, B., Benedetti, E., Cristiano, L., Avantaggiati, M.L., Giordano, A., Ferri, C., Desideri, G. Cocoa powder triggers neuroprotective and preventive effects in a human Alzheimer’s disease model by modulating BDNF signaling pathway.(2013) Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 114 (10), pp. 2209-2220. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of l’Aquila, Via Vetoio n. 10, L’Aquila 67100, Italy; KEYWORDS: Anti-oxidant;  Cytoskeletric proteins;  Neurites;  Neurtodegenerative diseases; Neurons

Cordero-Herrera, I., Martín, M.A., Bravo, L., Goya, L.,  Ramos, S. Cocoa flavonoids improve insulin signalling and modulate glucose production via AKT and AMPK in HepG2 cells. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 57 (6), pp. 974-985. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain; KEYWORDS: Epicatechin;  Glucose production;  HepG2 cells

Ellam, S., Williamson, G. Cocoa and human health. (2013) Annual Review of Nutrition, 33, pp. 105-128. AFFILIATIONS: School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular disease;  Flavonoid;  Flavonol;  Magnesium;  Polyphenol;  Theobromine

Farhat, G., Drummond, S., Fyfe, L., Al-Dujaili, E.A.S. Dark Chocolate: An Obesity Paradox or a Culprit for Weight Gain? (2013) Phytotherapy Research, . Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Sciences Queen Margaret University Musselburgh, East Lothian UK. KEYWORDS: Flavanol; Satiety

Gallo, M., Vinci, G., Graziani, G., De Simone, C., Ferranti, P. The interaction of cocoa polyphenols with milk proteins studied by proteomic techniques. (2013) Food Research International, 54 (1), pp. 406-415. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy; KEYWORDS: Antioxidant; Mass spectrometry;  Polyphenols

Gu, Y., Lambert, J.D. Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 57 (6), pp. 948-961. AFFILIATIONS: Center of Excellence for Plant and Mushroom Foods For Health, The Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States. KEYWORDS: Metabolic syndrome;  Polyphenols;  Proanthocyanidins

Jenny, M., Schroecksnadel, S., Gostner, J.M., Ueberall, F., Fuchs, D. Cacao for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. (2013) Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease, pp. 271-281. AFFILIATIONS: Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; book chapter.

Judelson, D.A., Preston, A.G., Miller, D.L., Muñoz, C.X., Kellogg, M.D., Lieberman, H.R.  Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2013 Aug;33(4):499-506. doi:10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182905d24. AFFILIATION: Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA; Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition, The Hershey Company,Hershey, PA; and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Boston, Boston, MA.

Llorach, R., Urpi-Sarda, M., Tulipani, S., Garcia-Aloy, M., Monagas, M., Andres-Lacueva, C.  Metabolomic fingerprint in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease by cocoa intervention. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 57 (6), pp. 962-973. AFFILIATIONS: Biomarkers and Nutritional and Food Metabolomics Research Group, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, XaRTA, INSA, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORDS: Carnitine metabolism;  Metabolomics;  Polyphenols metabolism;  Tyrosine-O-sulfate

Moreno-Ulloa A, Cid A, Rubio-Gayosso I, Ceballos G, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez, I. Effects of (-)-epicatechin and derivatives on nitric oxide mediated induction of mitochondrial proteins. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2013 Aug 1; 23(15):4441-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.05.079. Epub 2013 Jun 1.AFFILIATION: University of California, San Diego, Department of Medicine, La Jolla, CA92093-0613, USA

Nwichi, S.O., Adewole, E.K., Dada, A.O., Ogidiama, O., Mokobia, O.E., Farombi, E.O. Cocoa powder extracts exhibits hypolipidemic potential in cholesterol-fed rats. (2012) African journal of medicine and medical sciences, 41 Suppl, pp. 39-49. AFFILIATIONS: Molecular Drug Metabolism & Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Robbins, R.J., Leonczak, J., Li, J., Christopher Johnson, J., Collins, T., Kwik-Uribe, C., Schmitz, H.H. Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: First action 2012.24.(2013) Journal of AOAC International, 96 (4), pp. 705-711. AFFILIATION: Analytical and Applied Sciences Group, Mars, Inc., 800 High St, Hackettstown, NJ

Ramirez-Sanchez, I., Taub, P.R., Ciaraldi, T.P., Nogueira, L., Coe, T., Perkins, G., Hogan, M., Maisel, A.S., Henry, R.R., Ceballos, G., Villarreal, F.  (-)-Epicatechin rich cocoa mediated modulation of oxidative stress regulators in skeletal muscle of heart failure and type 2 diabetes patients. (2013) International Journal of Cardiology. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, USA; VA San Diego Healthcare System, United States; Escuela Superior de Medicina del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Seccion de Posgrado, Mexico City, Mexico

Rodríguez-Ramiro, I., Ramos, S., López-Oliva, E., Agis-Torres, A., Bravo, L., Goya, L., Martín, M.A. Cocoa polyphenols prevent inflammation in the colon of azoxymethane-treated rats and in TNF-α-stimulated Caco-2 cells (2013) British Journal of Nutrition, 110 (2), pp. 206-215. AFFILIATIONS: Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutrición, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición (ICTAN-CSIC), Ciudad Universitaria, José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain; KEYWORDS: Colorectal cancer;  Cyclo-oxygenase-2;  Inducible nitric oxide synthase;  NF-κB

Sarriá B, Martínez-López S, Sierra-Cinos JL, García-Diz L, Mateos R, Bravo L. Regular consumption of a cocoa product improves the cardiometabolic profile in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults. Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 4:1-13. [Epub ahead of print]. AFFILIATION:Dept. Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Nováis, Madrid, Spain.

Serra, A. , Macià, A., Rubió, L., Anglès, N. , Ortega, N., Morelló, J.R., Romero, M.-P., Motilva, M.-J. Distribution of procyanidins and their metabolites in rat plasma and tissues in relation to ingestion of procyanidin-enriched or procyanidin-rich cocoa creams. (2013) European Journal of Nutrition, 52 (3), pp. 1029-1038. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Technology, Universitat de Lleida, Avda/Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain; KEYWORDS: Food matrix effect;  Plasma;  Tissue distribution

Sokolov AN, Pavlova MA, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P.   Chocolate and the brain: Neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2013 Jun 26. pii: S0149-7634(13)00168-1. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.013. [Epub ahead of print]. AFFILIATION: Department of Internal Medicine VI: Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Research Division, University of Tübingen Medical School, D 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: alexander.sokolov@uni-tuebingen.de.

Taub, P.R., Ramirez-Sanchez, I., Ciaraldi, T.P., Gonzalez-Basurto, S., Coral-Vazquez, R., Perkins, G., Hogan, M., Maisel, A.S., Henry, R.R., Ceballos, G., Villarreal, F.  Perturbations in skeletal muscle sarcomere structure in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes: Restorative effects of (-)-epicatechinrich cocoa. (2013) Clinical Science, 125 (8), pp. 383-389. AFFILIATIONS: School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States; KEYWORDS: Atrophy;  Dystrophin;  Mitochondrion;  Myofibre; Health


Crafack, M., Mikkelsen, M.B., Saerens, S., Knudsen, M., Blennow, A., Lowor, S., Takrama, J., Swiegers, J.H., Petersen, G.B., Heimdal, H., Nielsen, D.SInfluencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation. (2013) Internat. J. Food Microbiology. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science, Section for Food Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

De Melo Pereira, G.V., Magalhães-Guedes, K.T., Schwan, R.F. RDNA-based DGGE analysis and electron microscopic observation of cocoa beans to monitor microbial diversity and distribution during the fermentation process. (2013) Food Research International, 53 (1), pp. 482-486. AFFILIATIONS: Biology Department – Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG, Brazil

Moreira, I.M.D.V., Miguel, M.G.D.C.P., Duarte, W.F., Dias, D.R., Schwan, R.F. Microbial succession and the dynamics of metabolites and sugars during the fermentation of three different cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hybrids. (2013) Food Research International, 54 (1), pp. 9-17. AFFILIATIONS: Food Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Hybrids;  PCR-DGGE;  Volatile compounds

Owusu, M., Petersen, M.A., Heimdal, H. Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions. (2013) J.Food Science and Technology, 50 (5), pp. 909-917. AFFILIATION: Department of Food Science/Quality and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; KEYWORDS: Flavor attributes;  Heap-fermented;  Tray-fermented

Romero-Cortes, T., Salgado-Cervantes, M.A., García-Alamilla, P., García-Alvarado, M.A., del C Rodríguez-Jimenes, G., Hidalgo-Morales, M. , Robles-Olvera, V. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans. (2013) J. Sci. Food Agric., 93 (10), pp. 2596-2604.AFFILIATION: Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo en Alimentos, Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz, Av. Miguel Angel de Quevedo No. 2779, Col. Formando Hogar, C.P. 91897, Veracruz, Mexico; KEYWORDS:  flavor;  Vicilins

Ramos, C.L., Thorsen, L., Schwan, R.F., Jespersen, L. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products. Food Microbiol. 2013 Oct;36(1):22-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2013.03.010. Epub 2013 Apr 15. AFFILIATION: Dept. Biology, Federal University of Lavras, 37.200-000 Lavras, MG, Brazil

Teye, E.; Huang, X.; Dai, H.; Chen, Q. Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification. Spectrochimica acta. part a, molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy; 2013; 114 (); 183-9.  AFFILIATION: School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, PR China, [e-mail upon request]


Contributions to the WCF Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or wcf@worldcocoa.org. News items will be included in the next  update.

Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to wcf@worldcocoa.org.


Prepared by Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor — October 1,  2013.